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If there is a rebellion against the authority (for example the internationally recognized government of the country) and those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents, the rebellion is an insurgency.
And Insecurity is a feeling of uncertainty, a lack of confidence or anxiety about you or the state of being open to danger or threat; lack of protection.
Year-in, year-out, decades after decades and centuries upon centuries, there has continued to be recurrent calls for eradication of illiteracy globally. The experience over the years has, however, shown that no target fixed for eradication of illiteracy has ever been met. There have always been renewed calls for eradication of illiteracy at the expiration of countless number of failed decades set as targets for ‘Education for All’ without meeting the target. Parts of the major causes of unrealized and unfulfilled dreams of education for all have been challenges posed by insurgency and insecurity bedeviling the entire world.
The outbreak of insurgencies culminating in high level of insecurity has hampered children’s and adults’ access to all forms of education be it formal, non-formal, or adult education. Due to insurgencies, school have been physically touched, destroyed, burnt and broken down. The systems of education in many countries globally have been adversely affected. Communities scattered and destabilized, people displaced and killed.
Terrorism is another dimension of prevalence of insecurity and insurgency. Achumba et al. (2013) defined terrorism as the premeditated, threat or use of violence by an individual or group to cause fear, destruction or death, especially against unarmed targets, property or infrastructure in a state, intended to compel those in authority to respond to the demands and expectations of the individual or group behind such violent acts.
Muzan (2014) also said terrorism is any act which is intended to cause death or serious bodily harm to civilians or noncombatants (in a conflict) with the purpose of intimidating a population or compelling a government or an international organization to do or abstain from doing any act. Examples are Boko Haram in Nigeria, Hamas in Palestine, Islamic State in Iraq and the Syria (ISIS), El-Shabab in Somalia etc. All of these insurgencies including other armed groups directly carry attacks on education.
The consequences of any act of violence are often despicable and far-reaching. The analysis of the impacts of the insurgency on human security will be based on the broader perspective of human security with particular focus on food and nutrition, health, shelter, education and protection which are the primary needs of every individual.
In literature, many reasons have been given for the attacks suffered by education by insurgents. Since their grievances are against the governments and their policies, the insurgents see attacking schools as attacking one of the institutions that form parts of what gives the governments strength and relevance to the peoples they govern. The insurgents also are aware that education is what touches all the citizens, so attacking it makes all citizens to feel impact of their campaigns
It is often said that prevention is better than cure. However the cure becomes imperative at the instance of occurrence. Now that insurgency and insecurity have occurred, proactive measures need to be made. The first thing is not rebuilding the damaged school buildings but repairing and rebuilding the damaged security. It is only when adequate security is put in place as earlier pointed out in this article that every other acts of reconstruction of physical facilities can be meaningful.
Thus, according to Coursen-Neff, et al. (2010), putting an end to attacks on schools, teachers, and students requires action at national and international levels on three fronts:
(i) Stronger monitoring systems;
(ii) Targeted preventive measures, and more decisive and timely response when incidents do occur.
(iii) Effective justice mechanisms that hold violators of domestic and international law accountable.
OTHER ACTIONS THAT MUST BE TAKEN BEFORE INSURGENCY AND INSECURITY CAN END.
a) Government should create a rehabilitation centre and career opportunities for dismissed Soldiers and Police, so that they will not become terrorists after their dismissal.
b) Government should sponsor the education or career of all the Soldiers that discharged voluntarily without reaching pension age and was paid off, Government should also cater for all their basic needs because it is better for Government to spend some of the nation’s money on building the people that served the nation faithfully and discharged voluntarily than wasting the money on things that will not contribute positively to the well being of the nation. We know that military job is a voluntary job and any skill or knowledge that anybody gain from military can still be used to develop the nation outside the military. If Government did not value this kind of people, terrorists can entice them with money and use them for terrorism most especially if they lack money or good living.
c) There must be equal right for everybody and individual must be able to afford all the necessary things easily at anytime without difficulty unless if the person is lazy.
d) Government should avoid anything that will frustrate the effort of upright people because if there is no frustration there will be no misbehaviour.