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COVID 19 PANDEMIC

We are getting to the end of year 2020 and still we haven’t figured out how to overcome the situation of COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) Pandemic. We barely have started this year and now we are at the end of it. Most of us had some goals and some dreams to fulfil this year but now we are sitting in our homes hardly even surviving on our savings.

Even though rich and powerful people are finding ways to generate money in this stressful situation, poor people are under the mental pressure of how to sustain themselves in this situation.

The world will have 88-115 million ‘new extreme poor people’ in 2020 due to the novel coronavirus disease pandemic, a new World Bank report released has said that “The number could rise to 150 million by 2021”. Most of the new extreme poor will be in countries that already have high poverty rates. Several middle-income countries will see significant numbers of people slip below the extreme poverty line. About 82 per cent of the total will be in middle-income countries according to the new World Bank estimates.

Due to this long lock down, the jobless poor families are forced to lock down their hunger too. Many people are forced to lose their life in the streets, while some people are choosing suicide as the best alternative to the hunger.

When the government implemented lock down, most of the people that worked day and night just to earn their daily bread started to face major problems. Every sector of the country started facing economic problems as well as mental pressure. Education sector is also hampered a lot due to this lock down. But like others who are worried about the future days and how to continue their business in future.

We should be worried about those who don’t even have shelter to survive, food to eat, water to drink, who have been stranded in different countries and at different borders. What is going to happen to them? How are they going to survive? They can’t even pay for their food, then how are they going to pay for their medications or hospital bills?


Children are highly vulnerable to even short periods of hunger and malnutrition potentially affecting them for their whole life. If we act now, we can prevent and contain the pandemic threat facing the poorest countries and some of the most vulnerable children.

Will life before COVID-19 Pandemic ever come back? If yes, how much time it will take to retrieve from it, could homeless people and people that have no food ever survive this, what should the government do to protect their citizens and people that are in their Country?

JOB WELL DONE

The client, the worker, or the boss… Who is the best placed to judge the quality of your work? Defining a job well done can be tricky. But by confronting these very different sets of criteria, we can hopefully reach to a point.

What do a purring engine, a subtle perfume, and successful meetings have in common? A fair amount of “job well done”. Whereas, its opposite is the “botched job” – from the “hotline” which won’t pick up, to the sales of contaminated products are met with annoyance, or even indignation. So how do we bridge the gap between our initial intentions and the final product? How can a “job well done” be organized collectively? The notion is definitely a subjective one; but there are some dilemmas we can all identify with. When care workers protest against tight schedules which are harming their residents, for example, we understand their exasperation… But if we are to be practical, we would probably be better off asking not what a job well done is, but who should define it.

Unfortunately, we cannot expect to build up our firm’s capacity simply by hiring employees, even ones who seem to be qualified on paper. It takes an investment in designing and supervising the work they do. Thus, there are some fundamentals of good job that we need to do right away to achieve the recognition of job well done. Like defining the characteristics of high-quality work in detail and creating a checklist for each task done even a natural chunk or unit of work done and to make sure your employees or your colleagues know what they need to do in order to get a best outcome is a part of job well done.
Going over our own checklists and of employees and spending plenty of time on each point, discussing it, demonstrating it and then encouraging questions and comments with the other employees is the essence of a job well done. Other quality is how to handle the situation when things go wrong now. Thus, focusing on checking again and again or asking the employees about what went wrong and why and how the same problem might be avoided in the future. In other words, always using errors or problems as learning opportunities and staying calm at messed up situations is the step of a ladder to well done job. This will help keep us focused on the pursuit of high standards.

The most important thing is an Appreciation, which is also a fundamental human need. Employees respond to appreciation expressed through recognition of their good work because it confirms that their work is valued. When employees and their work are valued, their satisfaction and productivity rises, and they are motivated to maintain or improve their good work. Employee recognition is free or low cost; employee recognition is the timely, informal or formal acknowledgement of a person’s or team’s behavior, effort or business result that supports the organization’s goals and values, which has clearly been demonstrated beyond normal expectations. Recognition is also a powerful means of communication; it sends extremely positive signals to the recipient and others who are aware of it and makes them capable enough to perform their jobs in the best way.

Doing a great job is as much of an attitude as it is an activity. Jonas Salk, the medical researcher, said, “The reward for job well done is the opportunity to do more.” So we must give it our best. Excellence is not a destination, but a way of life. Every time we hear “Thanks for doing a good job,” we’ll know that we are on the right course. Thus, sending a mail or a letter of thanks giving to a person who has done his job very well is very important to keep his efficiency to work intact and fresh.

OUTFIT

From the olden times man had worn something to protect himself from heat and cold. In olden days they may be leaves of trees and after that man invented clothes, because man is the only creature on earth that wear something to cover nakedness.

Outfit is the distinctive style of dress of an individual or group that reflects class, gender, profession, ethnicity, nationality, activity or epoch. Outfit means the act of fitting out or equipping a set of tools or equipment especially for the practice of a trade or a clothing ensemble often for a special occasion or activity or physical, mental, or moral endowments or resources.

Dress and fashion can be used not only to symbolize culture, religion or spirituality, but it can also be used as a tool of oppression as well as liberation. For many people, outfit is an expression of personality, faith, choice and identity. It can also deeply affect one’s spiritual self and help connect the wearer to her inward self.

Marco Pallis describes the significance and meaningfulness between outfit and spiritual identity and how, according to him, outfit ranks among the most important but least analyzed sites of colonization. He is particularly interested in analyzing outfit as a component of spirituality. He writes that “of many things that a person puts to use in the pursuit of her earthly vocation, there are none perhaps, which are so intimately bound up with her whole personality as the clothes she wears”. The first thing that Pallis note tells is how outfit greatly modifies the appearance of a person and even his/her facial characteristics.

The most obvious function of outfit is to protect the wearer from the elements. In hot weather, outfit provides protection from sunburn or wind damage. In the cold it offers thermal insulation. Shelter can reduce the functional need for clothing. For example, coats, hats, gloves and other outer layers are normally removed when entering a warm place. Similarly, outfit has seasonal and regional aspects, so that thinner materials and fewer layers of outfit are generally worn in warmer regions and seasons than in colder ones.

Outfit performs a range of social and cultural functions, such as individual, occupational and gender differentiation, and social status. In many societies, norms about outfit reflect standards of modesty, religion, gender, and social status. Outfit may also function as adornment and an expression of personal taste or style.

Outfit protects against many things that might injure or irritate the uncovered human body, including rain, snow, wind, and other weather, as well as from the sun. Outfits that are too sheer, thin, small or tight offer less protection. Appropriate clothes can also reduce risk during activities such as work or sport. Some outfits protects from specific hazards, such as insects, noxious chemicals, weather, weapons, and contact with abrasive substances.

Outfit has a deep influence on human behavior. A person who is not dressed according to prevalent fashion or season is mocked at. For example, a person wearing a woolen suit in summers would be a source of laughter. It has a deep influence on adolescents. On one hand, they want to dress up fashionably while on the other hand, they are pressurized by family values. If they do not dress up according to the latest fashion, they are mocked at due to they develop inferiority complex, whereas proper outfit inculcates a feeling of self-confidence and self control which is very essential for the all round personality development.

Outfits enhance our personality, in fact outfits makes a man. Outfits, more than any other factor adds to the development of overall personality. The outfit of a person helps others to recognize who he or she is. For example, we can easily identify the school of a child by his uniform. Similarly, nurses, doctors, advocates and soldiers all have their distinctive uniform which defines their social role.

Dressing reflects the nationality, culture, character, etc. of the wearer. It is an indispensable social condition to use some kind of outfit because one cannot live naked in the society. In order to be civilized we will have to wear a reasonable outfit for various reasonable works.

In Europe good outfit is the first condition for being a gentleman. It adds to our personality, sophistication and well being. A man with a great outfit is better appreciated in service-interviews. He feels psychologically better. According to some people, it is said that we should not judge people by their looks or outfits but unfortunately we are judged. Thus, our outfit must be presentable, comfortable and reasonable according to the will of God.

ENTERTAINMENT

Entertainment is a form of activity that holds the attention and interest of an audience, or gives pleasure and delight.


It can be an idea or a task, but is more likely to be one of the activities or events that have developed over thousands of years specifically for the purpose of keeping an audience’s attention. Although people’s attention is held by different things, because individuals have different preferences in entertainment, most forms are recognizable and familiar. Storytelling, music, drama, dance, and different kinds of performance exist in all cultures, were supported in royal courts, developed into sophisticated forms and over time became available to all citizens. The process has been accelerated in modern times by an entertainment industry that records and sells entertainment products.


Entertainment evolves and can be adapted to suit any scale, ranging from an individual who chooses a private entertainment from a now enormous array of pre-recorded products; to a banquet adapted for two; to any size or type of party, with appropriate music and dance; to performances intended for thousands; and even for a global audience.

The experience of being entertained has come to be strongly associated with amusement, so that one common understanding of the idea is fun and laughter, although many entertainments have a serious purpose. This may be the case in the various forms of ceremony, celebration, religious festival, or satire for example. Hence, there is the possibility that what appears as entertainment may also be a means of achieving insight or intellectual growth.


An important aspect of entertainment is the audience, which turns a private recreation or leisure activity into entertainment. The audience may have a passive role, as in the case of persons watching a play, opera, television show, or film; or the audience role may be active, as in the case of games, where the participant/audience roles may be routinely reversed. Entertainment can be public or private, involving formal, scripted performance, as in the case of theatre or concerts; or unscripted and spontaneous, as in the case of children’s games.


Most forms of entertainment have persisted over many centuries, evolving due to changes in culture, technology, and fashion for example with stage magic. Films and video games, for example, although they use newer media, continue to tell stories, present drama, and play music. Festivals devoted to music, film, or dance allow audiences to be entertained over a number of consecutive days.

Some activities that were once considered entertaining, particularly public punishments, have been removed from the public arena. Others, such as fencing or archery, once necessary skills for some, have become serious sports and even professions for the participants, at the same time developing into entertainment with wider appeal for bigger audiences. In the same way, other necessary skills, such as cooking, have developed into performances among professionals, staged as global competitions and then broadcast for entertainment.


What is entertainment for one group or individual may be regarded as work by another. The familiar forms of entertainment have the capacity to cross over different media and have demonstrated a seemingly unlimited potential for creative remix. This has ensured the continuity and longevity of many themes, images, and structures. Entertainment can be distinguished from other activities such as education and marketing even though they have learned how to use the appeal of entertainment to achieve their different goals. Sometimes entertainment can be a mixture for both.


The importance and impact of entertainment is recognized by scholars and its increasing sophistication has influenced practices in other fields such as musicology. Psychologists say the function of media entertainment is “the attainment of gratification”. No other results or measurable benefit are usually expected from it (except perhaps the final score in a sporting entertainment). This is in contrast to education (which is designed with the purpose of developing understanding or helping people to learn) and marketing (which aims to encourage people to purchase commercial products).


However, the distinctions become blurred when education seeks to be more “entertaining” and entertainment or marketing seek to be more “educational”. Such mixtures are often known by the neologisms “edutainment” or “infotainment”. The psychology of entertainment as well as of learning has been applied to all these fields. Some education-entertainment is a serious attempt to combine the best features of the two. Some people are entertained by others’ pain or the idea of their unhappiness.

JOY TO THE WISE

As we might probably know, joy is nothing more than the state of one being content and happy. A lot of people in the past, present and some even in the future will have tried to define and explain what they think joy really is. So far, the most reasonable one is the one that sees happiness as something that can only come from within a person and should not be sought for outside in the world.

Joy is defined by different people in different ways. Some find happiness in having a luxurious life while some find it in having loving people around them rather than money. True happiness lies within us. It is something that can be felt and cannot be explained in words. Even though this simple word has a lot of meaning hidden in it, many fail to understand the real one or feel the real happiness. Finding joy outer in this world is the main reason for some people’s fraustration. Nothing can buy you joy, either it is a favorite thing that you desire for or the person you love most or the career you build, unless you feel it within yourself.


A lot of us try to find joy at places or things where it is not. We associate and equate money with happiness. If at all there is joy in money then all of the rich people we have around us would never feel sad. What we have come to see is that even the rich amongst us are the ones that suffer depression, relationship problems, stress, fear and even anxiousness.

Many celebrities and successful people have committed suicide, this goes a long way to show that money or fame does not guarantee happiness. This does not mean that it is a bad thing to be rich and go after money. When you have money, you can afford many things that can make you and those around you very happy.

There is a saying that explains that one can only get true joy when one comes to the realization that only one can make himself/herself happy. This saying and its meaning is always hammered on in at different places but we still refuse to fully understand it and put it into good use. It is very important that we understand that happiness is nothing more than the state of a person’s mind. Joy cannot come from all the physical things we see around us. Only our positive emotions that we get through our good thoughts and actions have the ability to bring true joy in our life. Therefore, it is very important that we work on having only positive thoughts and this can be achieved when we see life in a positive light.

Joy is an internal feeling that helps us to stay fit both mentally and physically. Factors that influence joyfulness are those that contribute to emotional and physical wellbeing. It helps us in lowering our stress and keeping us away from various health issues. It is an important emotion that influences how we live and feel on a daily basis. People have the liberty to choose happiness because we are not bound by any circumstances for life. The reasons of joy may be different for different person. You just need to find out what actually makes you happy. If you want real happiness in life then, you need to understand that only you can make yourself happy.

Every individual finds joy in their own because they know what makes them happy and what doesn’t. It most certainly is found – and not just momentary pleasure, but genuine, long-lasting happiness, which is not something that comes to a person randomly. In fact, most people have to work very hard for a very long time to finally find joy in their life and to create the best possible version of them. Moreover, it is something that any person can build on its own.

GOOD LIVING

Every human being aspires to live a good life. The problem is, we all define the phrase “good living” differently. Some are looking to live an honest life, full of integrity, joy and happiness. Others seek wealth, social status and fame, as they hope these aspects will help them to live the good life. In fact, they directly associate the good life with money and material belongings. Not every person that is living “the dream” or “the good life” is actually living a good life. Take for instance the infamous Colombian drug lord Pablo Escobar. He surely lived well. After all, Escobar is recorded to have been the wealthiest criminal in history. He had private jets, race cars and luxurious mansions. And I’m pretty sure he certainly draws happiness and satisfaction from his life. But was he living a good life? No, because that happiness was the result of so many destroyed lives and homes.

The good life is a term that refers to a (desirable) state that is primarily characterized by a high standard of living or the adherence to ethical and moral laws. Living a good life can mean something different for everyone. However, there is still a general understanding as what this idea entails to most human beings living in the modern world. The good life, in its most simple form, is a series of never ending satisfaction that only grows more powerful as time goes on. In its two different expressions, living the good life can be either expressed through an abundant/luxurious lifestyle full of material belongings or the attempt to live life in accordance with the ethical, moral, legal and religious laws of one’s country or culture.

One of the biggest problems people have in this world is that they are so trapped in the past or the future that they refuse to take control of their life by acknowledging the moment right before their eyes. They are constantly worrying about other things; their body is there but their mind is somewhere else. Be present in each and every moment, it will make you a much happier and inspired human being. As such, the term can both be understood as the quest for wealth, material possessions or luxuries and the quest to create a worthwhile, honest and meaningful existence.

A great number of people assume that the good life can only be attained by adding more to their life. As a consequence, they seek to add material belongings, wealth, social status, fame or something entirely different to their lives. This, however, is the wrong approach. You don’t necessarily have to add something new to your life to enjoy the good life. Quite the contrary is the case. The good life does not consist of continuously chasing evermore. Instead, simplicity and the ability to draw happiness from what you already have can be integral aspects of a good life. This shift in perception can help you to start living the good life in this present moment, without being dependent upon external influences.Good living can be about living your own passion. Your passion is what you love to do every day because it gives you a sense of worth and fulfillment. This can be concentrated into your true life purpose, which is the key to real wealth on this earth. Use your passion in the most productive and universal way possible and you will discover the reasons behind your most important endeavors and goals. There is no such a thing as perfect, there is only perception. The idea of it is based on your own definition. Instead of always searching for perfection, strive for the things that satisfy your individual wants and needs.

The concept of living the good life includes the relationship dimension as well. Without it, it would not fully contribute to your happiness and fulfillment. Even more so, relationships are an integral part of a worthwhile life. Neither wealth nor social status can grant access to true friendship. Therefore, living the good life also consists of spending a significant amounts of your time with those that you love and enjoy being around. The good life is all about growing, developing and becoming stronger together, not alone. Thus, living the good life means different things to different people.  There is, however, a slightly ambiguous, mutual understanding.  “The good life” is the life that you would like to live broken down to its most basic form. It deals with the simple pleasures that make you happy, the compassionate deeds you perform, the personal goals you strive to achieve, the relationships you nurture and the legacy you leave behind.  Sincere personal fulfillment is generally the collective end result.

SPORTS

Sports is an essential part of our life. It teaches us how to stay strong and healthy, and tests our physical abilities.
 
Usually, when going in for sports, we compete with other people in order to get some entertainment. At the same time, physical exercises bring a bunch of great benefits for participants. All kinds of sports can bring strong physical health, great team abilities, and strong organizational features. It concerns football, basketball, hockey, and other team sports. The physiological and physical advantages obtained within sports activities result in enriched physical stamina and improved reflexes.
 
Sports can be broadly classified into two categories: Physical sports and mind sports. A brief explanation of each is given below-
 
• Physical sport- Physical sport is a sport which involves physical exertion and relies on the physical stamina of the participants. Physical sports usually require a play area where the participants compete. The physical sports may further be classified into individual sports like boxing, tennis, badminton where the competition is between two individuals and team sports like basket ball, volley ball and cricket, where two teams compete with each other. A participant’s winning or losing in an individual physical sport depends completely on the stamina and dexterity displayed by him. While in the team sports the winning and losing depends on the overall performance of the team, that is if an individual hasn’t performed well, the team may still win. There are thousands of physical sports played today; few examples are archery, climbing, bungee jumping, kayaking and paragliding etc.
 
• Mind Sports- In mind sport the competition is based on a particular type of individual ability or skill rather than physical stamina. In a mind sport the competition is between the agility of mind and requires intense thinking rather than any physical exercise. In mind sports a number of factors like concentration, thinking speed, agility of mind and memory play a vital role in the contestants winning or losing. There is no physical exercise required and such games may be played sitting down across the table in a closed room. Some of the World famous mind sports are chess, poker, speed reading, computer programming and cyber security war games etc.
 
The major benefits that are usually seen by practicing sports are:- 
 
a)  Physical Fitness- Sports and games play a major role in keeping a person fit and fine. Furthermore, it increases the blood flow in the entire body. So, this helps in keeping the heart in the best condition. Moreover, the immunity of the body increases by playing outdoor sports. Also, it helps in keeping your body fat percentage low. This makes the appearance of the body better and makes a person good-looking.
 
b)  Increase mental health- Games like chess, card games increase the mental health of a person and develops spontaneity and the response time of a person. This helps in increasing the IQ of a person, make decisions under pressure and increase its presence of mind.
 
c)  Increase Stamina- Outdoor Sports like Football, cricket, basketball, swimming builds the stamina of a person. As all these sports require a lot of running, the stamina of a person automatically increases. Therefore a person can work for a longer period of time without getting tired.
 
d)  Builds a sense of teamwork- Some sports need individual participation, while some require teamwork. Thus, sport enlists teamwork in a person which is essential in every fieldwork. A company can only run by working together and not individually. So it is important for a person to know how to work together in a team. Only then he can achieve the desired goal.
 
e)  Stress-relieving- Sports can bring a change in one’s day to day routine. It relieves you from stress as your body will subject to experience lot of changes. It gives your mind a boost of enthusiasm and happiness. As a result, it will make you feel energetic all the time.
 
Thus, a sport is that aspect of human life which is of paramount importance. It certainly increases the quality of human life. Sports must be made mandatory in schools. Sports can bring a bunch of benefits for youth, including general health, together with blood circulation and overall physical stamina improvement. Sport develops and improves people’s physical, social, and organizational skills, which are beneficial in personal and professional life and must always be obtained. This is because it is as important as education. Everyone must perform at least one Sport activity on a regular basis.

MORAL VALUES

Moral values, as the name says, implies the significance of the moral qualities in the conduct of the kids, the youth and everyone one in life.
 
Primarily the moral values are the qualities which one gains from life through the journey of life. They also depict the standards of what is right and what is wrong for us which we learn in the schools and in the workplace and from our surroundings as well. The beliefs which we gain from the family and the society that directs us how we lead our lives is what moral values are all about. Moral values develop character of a person.
 
It is very truly said that –
“If Wealth is gone, nothing is gone.
If health is gone, something is gone.
But if character is gone, everything is gone”.
 
Moral values depict our character to the outer world. They are of extreme importance in our lives. In earlier times, people were so determined to follow these values inherited from our ancestors. Such was their determination that once committed they never went backed off from their words. But with modernization and urbanization, we have lost our moral values somewhere.
 
Children disrespecting their parents are a common sight nowadays. But, we should not blame the children for this. Teachers and Parents should endeavor to put in their best efforts into helping students and their children imbibe very solid moral values. Most children are very observant and they copy and learn habits and behaviors of their elder siblings, parents and teachers. They pay a solid attention to the manner of action and behavior of people around them and are tend to behave and act similarly to what they notice. They would be tending to speak only the truth if they notice that the elders around them are always truthful no matter what the situation may be.
 
Likewise, it is important as elders not to be engaged in any form of bad behavior as the children assume that they can also do these things as they are not wrong because the elders around them are doing it. We should try to always demonstrate good and solid moral values most especially because of children. The best way to teach children good and solid moral values is through our own actions and habits.
 
Establishment of good relationships depends upon good moral values. Values like honesty, trust, faithfulness and loyalty are essential in establishment and sustainability of good relationships. It is also important in building the economy. Through determination and hard work, people are able to conduct activities that contribute largely to the economic growth of a society. Also through establishment of good relationships, trade is conducted smoothly and there is teamwork in trade and performance of business transactions.
 
A person without moral values is considered to possess a bad character and the society will start to judge the person due to this behavior. Inhumane and Unethical Activities like dishonesty, telling lies for your own benefit, hurting others and even worst things, should be avoided. Lack of those values even leads to strained relationships and misunderstanding among members of the society.
 
Thus, It is very important for us as human beings to bear good and solid moral values like helping others, honesty , righteousness, decency, and even self-discipline. People that have great moral values are very indispensable asset to others and even the society at large. It is evident that moral values are an important consideration in the development of the society. If each one of us practices some moral values in our lives, there would be peace and harmony all around. Moreover, we will have a bright future for our next generations as well.

FINANCE

Finance is the study of money and how it is used. It is the soul and blood of any business and no firm can survive without finance.
 
It concerns itself with the management of monetary affairs of the firm—how money can be raised on the best terms available and how the procured money can be devoted to the best uses. Hence the nature of finance relates to the process of arrangement and application of funds.
 
Finance is needed to establish a business, to run it to modernize it to expand or diversify it. It is required for buying a variety of assets, which may be tangible like machinery, furniture, factories, buildings, and offices or intangible such as trademarks, patents, technical expertise etc.
 
Also, finance is central to run day to day operations of business like buying materials, paying bills, salaries, collecting cash from customers etc needed at every stage in the life of a business entity. Availability of adequate finance is very crucial for survival and growth of a business.
 
A business organization seek to achieve their objectives by obtaining funds from various sources and then investing them in different types of assets, such as plant, buildings, machin¬ery, vehicles etc. Thus for this, management of the finances through scientific decision – making is necessary.
 
Finance is often split into three areas: personal finance, corporate finance and public finance. At the same time, finance is about the overall “system” – i.e. the financial markets that allow the flow of money, via investments and other financial instruments, between and within these areas; this “flow” is facilitated by the financial services sector.
 
A major focus within finance is thus investment management — called money management for individuals, and asset management for institutions — and finance then includes the associated securities trading, investment banking, financial engineering, and risk management.
 
More abstractly, finance is concerned with the investment and deployment of assets and liabilities over “space and time”: i.e. it is about performing valuation and asset allocation today, based on risk and uncertainty re future outcomes, incorporating the time value of money (determining the present value of these future values, “discounting”, requires a risk-appropriate discount rate).
 
As an academic field, finance theory is studied and developed within the disciplines of management, (financial) economics, accountancy and applied mathematics. Correspondingly, given its wide application, there are several related professional qualifications, that can lead to the field. As the debate to whether finance is an art or a science is still open, there have been recent efforts to organize a list of unsolved problems in finance.
 
The nature of finance is discussed below:
 
1. Cost-Oriented:
Utilization of finance requires payment of fees, rent or any such cost to the provider of finance. Business raises funds and in exchange it has to pay a cost to suppliers of the funds. If the finance is arranged by issuing shares the firm pays dividend in return or capital payment in the form of bonus shares.
 
2. Value Based:
Economic application of finance helps to earn profit which ultimately creates value for the firm. Finance administers economic activities, enhances efficiency of the business operation, and thus ensures creation of surplus. So it deals with the broad spectrum of business activities that are directed to increase the value of the firm. How the fund can be arranged with least cost consideration and how that can be applied with best uses determines the extent of value generated by a firm. Hence finance is value-oriented.
 
3. Interrelated:
It has a deep impact on the organization, society as well as the economy. The financing decision of a firm creates impact on investors, employees, debtors, creditors, government and all the members of an economy. Business activities are not mutually exclusive and so their dependence on each other is measured in terms of finance. Decisions relating to any activity influence others and in this way finance builds an interrelationship among business, society and economy.
 
4. Pervasive:
Finance is all-pervasive. It is necessary for all types of organizations whether profit seeking or non-profit seeking. For profit seeking firm’s value maximization is the main goal while for non-profit seeking firms cost minimization and survival get prime importance. Both these goals are evaluated in financial terms. Firms, whether profit seeking or non-profit seeking, require financial support, because financial viability is the central theme of every firm.
 

CREATIVITY

Creativity is the ability of a person or group to make something new and useful or valuable, or the process of making something new and useful or valuable.
 
It happens in all areas of life – science, art, literature and music. As a personal ability it is very difficult to measure. The reason is that we don’t understand the mental processes that help some people be more creative than others. Judging what is creative is also controversial. Some people say only things which are historically new are creative, while other people say that if it is new for the creator and the people around them, then it is also creativity.
 
Thus, creativity is a constructive process which results in the production of essentially a new product. Creativity is seeing or expressing new relationships. Creativity is not limited to the objects of everyday use, but it is an instrument for increasing knowledge. Creativity is possible in all areas of life like thinking, working, playing or social interaction.
 
Some think creativity is an important thing that makes humans different from apes. Others recognize that even apes, other primates, other mammals and some birds adapt to survive by being creative (for example – primates using tools). Liane Gabora believes that all cultures come from creativity, not imitation.
 
Therefore, these people say, human science should focus on it or pay special attention to it :- 
 
(a) Ethics for example would focus on finding creative solutions to ethical dilemmas. 
 
(b) Politics would focus on the political virtues that need some creativity. Imitation would not be the focus of education. 
 
(c) Linguistics might be more interested in how new words are created by culture, rather than in how existing ones are used in grammar.
 
Creativity begins with a foundation of knowledge, learning a discipline, and mastering a way of thinking. You can learn to be creative by experimenting, exploring, questioning assumptions, using imagination and synthesizing information. 
 
Learning to be creative is akin to learning a sport. It requires practice to develop the right muscles and a supportive environment in which to flourish. Though we cannot alter genetic factors, we can alter behavior through manipulation of the environment in which the individual lives. It is found that the culture, family atmosphere and education play significant roles in the development of creative talent. “Creativity flourishes when creative behavior is encouraged.
 
It is also observed that by proper training creative thinking can be improved. Recognition of the creativeness of the child by the family members and teachers and encouraging the child to develop creative thinking yields good results as found by studies.
 
Studies by Clayton M. Christensen and his researchers uncovered The Innovators DNA: Your ability to generate innovative ideas is not merely a function of the mind, but also a function of five key behaviors that optimize your brain for discovery:
 
• Associating: drawing connections between questions, problems, or ideas from unrelated fields
 
• Questioning: posing queries that challenge common wisdom
 
• Observing: scrutinizing the behavior of customers, suppliers, and competitors to identify new ways of doing things
 
• Networking: meeting people with different ideas and perspectives
 
• Experimenting: constructing interactive experiences and provoking unorthodox responses to see what insights emerge
 
Creativity is not an easy process; it requires efforts and hard work. If the person lacks motivation, he may give up easily without sufficient efforts. And the lack of results can be blamed on lack of creativity. But if a person is truly motivated, and works towards his problems a creative solution can always be attained.
 
We must learn that every person has a creative side or aspect of their personality. It only requires exploration and application. We must not forget that creativity is necessary and in actual it is a hard work because the talent only is not enough. So, tremendous amount of commitment and passion is necessary to be creative.