The COVID-19 pandemic is a “wicked problem” that is characterized by multiple competing problems that seem to conflict with each other, such as protecting lives versus preserving livelihoods. However, this problem can potentially be addressed through more creativity and innovation, which has already begun in response to the pandemic. Some innovations have helped reduce exposure to the coronavirus, such as production of hand sanitizer. Other innovations have helped increase health care capacity, such as engineering firms creating new ventilator machines, and pharmaceutical companies repurposing existing drugs to alleviate COVID-19 symptoms. We argue that to help solve this global, wicked, and dynamically changing problem, the public health sector must continue to support, promote, and even expand on these innovative efforts by using creative problem-solving techniques.

To do so, the sector needs to broaden its norms, processes, and infrastructures by adapting its views on uncertainty. For example, in a 2017 survey of local and state governmental public health department employees, less than half reported that creativity and innovation were rewarded at work, which is an essential condition for creativity in organizations. Therefore, we recommend that people from all levels and domains of public health, from frontline health workers to government leaders, must not only try to reduce uncertainty during decision-making, but also embrace uncertainty as they search for new and better solutions to problems. We draw on literature from organizational creativity and innovation to propose a framework for creative problem-solving that can help people navigate this uncertainty more effectively and promote more creative and innovative responses to COVID-19.

A Framework for Creative Problem-Solving

Creativity and innovation refer to 2 different stages of the same underlying process. Creativity involves producing novel and useful ideas to solve a problem, and innovation involves implementing and refining those ideas to create a tangible product, process, service, or technology that an end user can adopt. In the COVID-19 context, creativity may involve any effort to produce new ideas aimed at solving a problem related to the pandemic, and these ideas become innovations after they have been fully developed into a final outcome that benefits an end user—such as hand sanitizer and ventilators.

At its core, creativity is a problem-solving process that is fundamentally affected by the environment in which people operate. Important dimensions of the environment that affect creativity include the range of problems that need to be satisfied (eg, goals, objectives, criteria) and the resources available to develop a solution (eg, knowledge, materials, finances, time). Together, the scope of possible problems and resources related to a task shapes the total knowledge landscape that people must navigate as they search for novel and useful solutions to problems. The COVID-19 pandemic significantly expanded the scope of possible problems to solve while also constraining the resources available to develop solutions to those problems. The fluctuation of problems and resources over time influences how much uncertainty people experience during the process. Research shows there are 2 particularly effective problem-solving processes people can use to navigate through this uncertainty to be more creative: directed creativity, when people start with a clearly defined problem and navigate through uncertainty to search for a solution, and emergent creativity, when people start with a partially developed solution and navigate through uncertainty to search for problems.

When people experience high levels of uncertainty over both the problem and solution, they can suffer from excessive stress, anxiety, and frustration because they have too many options to choose from and do not have clear guidance on where to direct their effort. As a result, creativity suffers. To alleviate this issue, it is essential to anchor the problem-solving process on a single dimension of the knowledge landscape (ie, the criteria of a problem, the resources for a solution), allowing people to embrace uncertainty over the other dimension and conduct a more effective search.

One effective process is called directed creativity, in which people anchor their effort on a clearly defined problem and then engage in a broad search across resources to develop viable solutions to the problem. For example, once it became clear that COVID-19 affected the lower respiratory system, it provided a clear target for companies to mobilize resources toward designing new ventilator machines that could be manufactured quickly, efficiently, and at volume. Directed creativity is effective because people are more likely to be creative when they generate many divergent ideas during the creative process, which is facilitated by having access to more resources and applying knowledge from different domains to the problem at hand. Furthermore, by working on a clearly defined problem, people can more easily determine which ideas are most useful, helping them avoid the negative feelings of excessive choice and reducing conflict in diverse teams.

However, many problems can be vague, ambiguous, and open-ended, making it difficult for people to define a problem clearly at the beginning of the process. Under these conditions, it may be more effective to use emergent creativity, in which people anchor their efforts on a particular resource or piece of the solution, and then engage in a broader search across problems that can be solved by those resources. For example, a more open-ended problem from COVID-19 has been how to maximize quality of life as people avoid unnecessary human contact. Furthermore, in emergent creativity, new problems can emerge as people explore the range of possible problems that can be solved with various resources.

Both directed and emergent creativity can help people navigate through uncertainty to develop creative solutions to problems. Sometimes, these efforts can even result in breakthrough solutions that solve a wicked problem. For example, COVID-19 has upended both public health and the economy, often sacrificing one for the other. The most creative solutions can resolve this tension and fully satisfy both competing demands; such as when the local, state and Federal governments provide good accommodation for the homeless and also provide good employment for unemployed. Ministries of Agriculture and other Ministries supposed to be well equipped and well maintained, while a lot of people suppose to be getting employment and good accommodation through them. This solution is not only protecting vulnerable populations, but it also kept the nation’s economy boosting and reduce crime rate. Altogether, there are many different levels of creative solutions, including less creative existing solutions to existing problems, new solutions for existing problems or existing solutions for new problems, new solutions to new problems, and maximally creative breakthrough solutions for wicked problems. All of these solutions are welcome and necessary as we collectively respond to COVID-19.

Facilitating More Innovation

There are several ways that the public health sector can broaden its norms, processes, and infrastructures to help creative ideas become tangible innovations that have a positive benefit for our society in these unprecedented times. First, at a broad level, all members of the public health sector can adopt new norms and attitudes about the role that uncertainty plays during decision-making. Public health always grapples with uncertainty, but often treats it as a nuisance that must be reduced or eliminated in order to make better decisions. However, when adopting a more creative approach to problem-solving, uncertainty actually can be a tool to help people explore and discover more novel and useful solutions to problems. Therefore, public health leaders can learn to embrace this uncertainty and encourage others to explore the knowledge landscape in search of better outcomes. Directed creativity is already aligned with these norms, whereby leaders can set an agenda with clearly-defined problems, and then give staff more autonomy and flexibility to develop novel solutions to these problems. When a new solution emerges that outperforms existing procedures, leaders should be ready to implement it quickly and efficiently.

However, another approach that could be effective in resource-constrained settings, as is occurring with COVID-19 and with public health work more generally, is to adopt emergent creativity. To facilitate this process, rather than setting an agenda that provides clear targets for people to hit, leaders can instead encourage people to be as creative as possible within the bounds of what resources are available. To accommodate people’s need for autonomy, leaders can relinquish some control over the problem, allowing people to have more flexibility to identify new and emerging problems that can be solved. As with directed creativity, it is important for leaders to identify new ideas that can be implemented quickly and efficiently, but they also may want to exert final decision-making authority over ideas to maintain some degree of focus and specialization. Altogether, by broadening norms to embrace uncertainty through both directed and emergent creativity, the public health sector can increase the rate at which creativity and innovation positively impact society significantly.

Second, the public health sector can broaden its processes related to funding public health activities and public health research. Funders often set strict guidelines on the problems that funding is to be used for, which is fully compatible with directed creativity, but also may inhibit emergent creativity. To promote more emergent creativity, funders could create calls for proposals that set a particular budget cap on resources, to be applied to much more open-ended problem domains. By allowing grantees to apply constrained resources to a broader range of potential problems, they may be able to discover new problems with solutions that could not have been foreseen ahead of time.

Finally, this is a time for everyone to work together with discipline. We must break down existing infrastructures that reinforce silos and replace them with new structures that encourage collective action for the common good. The wicked problem of COVID-19 calls for integrated solutions across infectious disease, epidemiology, health behavior education, occupational and environmental health, and others outside of public health. For example, public health agencies and housing agencies can collaboratively identify different practices for sheltering in place when there are homeless people. Creativity and innovation thrive when diverse experts work together to solve problems, and currently there are no physical or logistical limitations to bringing diverse groups of people together. This may, in the first process, help people focus on a clear and shared problem and then engage in a collective search to develop creative solutions, and in the second process, help people anchor their effort on a clear and concrete resource and then engage in a collective search to discover new and easy way of solving problems.


COVID-19 is a dynamic, uncertain, and wicked problem that must be addressed with an extensive suite of creative and innovative solutions. The public health sector is composed of a diverse and dedicated workforce that is capable of rising to this challenge, and we propose different approaches for creative problem-solving that can help them be more successful as they develop more creative and innovative responses to COVID-19. Key to success is the notion of embracing uncertainty and using directed and emergent creativity toward the ultimate goal of developing breakthrough solutions to wicked problems. These capabilities will not only improve our collective response to the current pandemic, but also may better prepare us to handle even more wicked problems looming in the future.


We are getting to the end of year 2020 and still we haven’t figured out how to overcome the situation of COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) Pandemic. We barely have started this year and now we are at the end of it. Most of us had some goals and some dreams to fulfil this year but now we are sitting in our homes hardly even surviving on our savings.

Even though rich and powerful people are finding ways to generate money in this stressful situation, poor people are under the mental pressure of how to sustain themselves in this situation.

The world will have 88-115 million ‘new extreme poor people’ in 2020 due to the novel coronavirus disease pandemic, a new World Bank report released has said that “The number could rise to 150 million by 2021”. Most of the new extreme poor will be in countries that already have high poverty rates. Several middle-income countries will see significant numbers of people slip below the extreme poverty line. About 82 per cent of the total will be in middle-income countries according to the new World Bank estimates.

Due to this long lock down, the jobless poor families are forced to lock down their hunger too. Many people are forced to lose their life in the streets, while some people are choosing suicide as the best alternative to the hunger.

When the government implemented lock down, most of the people that worked day and night just to earn their daily bread started to face major problems. Every sector of the country started facing economic problems as well as mental pressure. Education sector is also hampered a lot due to this lock down. But like others who are worried about the future days and how to continue their business in future.

We should be worried about those who don’t even have shelter to survive, food to eat, water to drink, who have been stranded in different countries and at different borders. What is going to happen to them? How are they going to survive? They can’t even pay for their food, then how are they going to pay for their medications or hospital bills?

Children are highly vulnerable to even short periods of hunger and malnutrition potentially affecting them for their whole life. If we act now, we can prevent and contain the pandemic threat facing the poorest countries and some of the most vulnerable children.

Will life before COVID-19 Pandemic ever come back? If yes, how much time it will take to retrieve from it, could homeless people and people that have no food ever survive this, what should the government do to protect their citizens and people that are in their Country?


The client, the worker, or the boss… Who is the best placed to judge the quality of your work? Defining a job well done can be tricky. But by confronting these very different sets of criteria, we can hopefully reach to a point.

What do a purring engine, a subtle perfume, and successful meetings have in common? A fair amount of “job well done”. Whereas, its opposite is the “botched job” – from the “hotline” which won’t pick up, to the sales of contaminated products are met with annoyance, or even indignation. So how do we bridge the gap between our initial intentions and the final product? How can a “job well done” be organized collectively? The notion is definitely a subjective one; but there are some dilemmas we can all identify with. When care workers protest against tight schedules which are harming their residents, for example, we understand their exasperation… But if we are to be practical, we would probably be better off asking not what a job well done is, but who should define it.

Unfortunately, we cannot expect to build up our firm’s capacity simply by hiring employees, even ones who seem to be qualified on paper. It takes an investment in designing and supervising the work they do. Thus, there are some fundamentals of good job that we need to do right away to achieve the recognition of job well done. Like defining the characteristics of high-quality work in detail and creating a checklist for each task done even a natural chunk or unit of work done and to make sure your employees or your colleagues know what they need to do in order to get a best outcome is a part of job well done.
Going over our own checklists and of employees and spending plenty of time on each point, discussing it, demonstrating it and then encouraging questions and comments with the other employees is the essence of a job well done. Other quality is how to handle the situation when things go wrong now. Thus, focusing on checking again and again or asking the employees about what went wrong and why and how the same problem might be avoided in the future. In other words, always using errors or problems as learning opportunities and staying calm at messed up situations is the step of a ladder to well done job. This will help keep us focused on the pursuit of high standards.

The most important thing is an Appreciation, which is also a fundamental human need. Employees respond to appreciation expressed through recognition of their good work because it confirms that their work is valued. When employees and their work are valued, their satisfaction and productivity rises, and they are motivated to maintain or improve their good work. Employee recognition is free or low cost; employee recognition is the timely, informal or formal acknowledgement of a person’s or team’s behavior, effort or business result that supports the organization’s goals and values, which has clearly been demonstrated beyond normal expectations. Recognition is also a powerful means of communication; it sends extremely positive signals to the recipient and others who are aware of it and makes them capable enough to perform their jobs in the best way.

Doing a great job is as much of an attitude as it is an activity. Jonas Salk, the medical researcher, said, “The reward for job well done is the opportunity to do more.” So we must give it our best. Excellence is not a destination, but a way of life. Every time we hear “Thanks for doing a good job,” we’ll know that we are on the right course. Thus, sending a mail or a letter of thanks giving to a person who has done his job very well is very important to keep his efficiency to work intact and fresh.


From the olden times man had worn something to protect himself from heat and cold. In olden days they may be leaves of trees and after that man invented clothes, because man is the only creature on earth that wear something to cover nakedness.

Outfit is the distinctive style of dress of an individual or group that reflects class, gender, profession, ethnicity, nationality, activity or epoch. Outfit means the act of fitting out or equipping a set of tools or equipment especially for the practice of a trade or a clothing ensemble often for a special occasion or activity or physical, mental, or moral endowments or resources.

Dress and fashion can be used not only to symbolize culture, religion or spirituality, but it can also be used as a tool of oppression as well as liberation. For many people, outfit is an expression of personality, faith, choice and identity. It can also deeply affect one’s spiritual self and help connect the wearer to her inward self.

Marco Pallis describes the significance and meaningfulness between outfit and spiritual identity and how, according to him, outfit ranks among the most important but least analyzed sites of colonization. He is particularly interested in analyzing outfit as a component of spirituality. He writes that “of many things that a person puts to use in the pursuit of her earthly vocation, there are none perhaps, which are so intimately bound up with her whole personality as the clothes she wears”. The first thing that Pallis note tells is how outfit greatly modifies the appearance of a person and even his/her facial characteristics.

The most obvious function of outfit is to protect the wearer from the elements. In hot weather, outfit provides protection from sunburn or wind damage. In the cold it offers thermal insulation. Shelter can reduce the functional need for clothing. For example, coats, hats, gloves and other outer layers are normally removed when entering a warm place. Similarly, outfit has seasonal and regional aspects, so that thinner materials and fewer layers of outfit are generally worn in warmer regions and seasons than in colder ones.

Outfit performs a range of social and cultural functions, such as individual, occupational and gender differentiation, and social status. In many societies, norms about outfit reflect standards of modesty, religion, gender, and social status. Outfit may also function as adornment and an expression of personal taste or style.

Outfit protects against many things that might injure or irritate the uncovered human body, including rain, snow, wind, and other weather, as well as from the sun. Outfits that are too sheer, thin, small or tight offer less protection. Appropriate clothes can also reduce risk during activities such as work or sport. Some outfits protects from specific hazards, such as insects, noxious chemicals, weather, weapons, and contact with abrasive substances.

Outfit has a deep influence on human behavior. A person who is not dressed according to prevalent fashion or season is mocked at. For example, a person wearing a woolen suit in summers would be a source of laughter. It has a deep influence on adolescents. On one hand, they want to dress up fashionably while on the other hand, they are pressurized by family values. If they do not dress up according to the latest fashion, they are mocked at due to they develop inferiority complex, whereas proper outfit inculcates a feeling of self-confidence and self control which is very essential for the all round personality development.

Outfits enhance our personality, in fact outfits makes a man. Outfits, more than any other factor adds to the development of overall personality. The outfit of a person helps others to recognize who he or she is. For example, we can easily identify the school of a child by his uniform. Similarly, nurses, doctors, advocates and soldiers all have their distinctive uniform which defines their social role.

Dressing reflects the nationality, culture, character, etc. of the wearer. It is an indispensable social condition to use some kind of outfit because one cannot live naked in the society. In order to be civilized we will have to wear a reasonable outfit for various reasonable works.

In Europe good outfit is the first condition for being a gentleman. It adds to our personality, sophistication and well being. A man with a great outfit is better appreciated in service-interviews. He feels psychologically better. According to some people, it is said that we should not judge people by their looks or outfits but unfortunately we are judged. Thus, our outfit must be presentable, comfortable and reasonable according to the will of God.


Entertainment is a form of activity that holds the attention and interest of an audience, or gives pleasure and delight.

It can be an idea or a task, but is more likely to be one of the activities or events that have developed over thousands of years specifically for the purpose of keeping an audience’s attention. Although people’s attention is held by different things, because individuals have different preferences in entertainment, most forms are recognizable and familiar. Storytelling, music, drama, dance, and different kinds of performance exist in all cultures, were supported in royal courts, developed into sophisticated forms and over time became available to all citizens. The process has been accelerated in modern times by an entertainment industry that records and sells entertainment products.

Entertainment evolves and can be adapted to suit any scale, ranging from an individual who chooses a private entertainment from a now enormous array of pre-recorded products; to a banquet adapted for two; to any size or type of party, with appropriate music and dance; to performances intended for thousands; and even for a global audience.

The experience of being entertained has come to be strongly associated with amusement, so that one common understanding of the idea is fun and laughter, although many entertainments have a serious purpose. This may be the case in the various forms of ceremony, celebration, religious festival, or satire for example. Hence, there is the possibility that what appears as entertainment may also be a means of achieving insight or intellectual growth.

An important aspect of entertainment is the audience, which turns a private recreation or leisure activity into entertainment. The audience may have a passive role, as in the case of persons watching a play, opera, television show, or film; or the audience role may be active, as in the case of games, where the participant/audience roles may be routinely reversed. Entertainment can be public or private, involving formal, scripted performance, as in the case of theatre or concerts; or unscripted and spontaneous, as in the case of children’s games.

Most forms of entertainment have persisted over many centuries, evolving due to changes in culture, technology, and fashion for example with stage magic. Films and video games, for example, although they use newer media, continue to tell stories, present drama, and play music. Festivals devoted to music, film, or dance allow audiences to be entertained over a number of consecutive days.

Some activities that were once considered entertaining, particularly public punishments, have been removed from the public arena. Others, such as fencing or archery, once necessary skills for some, have become serious sports and even professions for the participants, at the same time developing into entertainment with wider appeal for bigger audiences. In the same way, other necessary skills, such as cooking, have developed into performances among professionals, staged as global competitions and then broadcast for entertainment.

What is entertainment for one group or individual may be regarded as work by another. The familiar forms of entertainment have the capacity to cross over different media and have demonstrated a seemingly unlimited potential for creative remix. This has ensured the continuity and longevity of many themes, images, and structures. Entertainment can be distinguished from other activities such as education and marketing even though they have learned how to use the appeal of entertainment to achieve their different goals. Sometimes entertainment can be a mixture for both.

The importance and impact of entertainment is recognized by scholars and its increasing sophistication has influenced practices in other fields such as musicology. Psychologists say the function of media entertainment is “the attainment of gratification”. No other results or measurable benefit are usually expected from it (except perhaps the final score in a sporting entertainment). This is in contrast to education (which is designed with the purpose of developing understanding or helping people to learn) and marketing (which aims to encourage people to purchase commercial products).

However, the distinctions become blurred when education seeks to be more “entertaining” and entertainment or marketing seek to be more “educational”. Such mixtures are often known by the neologisms “edutainment” or “infotainment”. The psychology of entertainment as well as of learning has been applied to all these fields. Some education-entertainment is a serious attempt to combine the best features of the two. Some people are entertained by others’ pain or the idea of their unhappiness.


As we might probably know, joy is nothing more than the state of one being content and happy. A lot of people in the past, present and some even in the future will have tried to define and explain what they think joy really is. So far, the most reasonable one is the one that sees happiness as something that can only come from within a person and should not be sought for outside in the world.

Joy is defined by different people in different ways. Some find happiness in having a luxurious life while some find it in having loving people around them rather than money. True happiness lies within us. It is something that can be felt and cannot be explained in words. Even though this simple word has a lot of meaning hidden in it, many fail to understand the real one or feel the real happiness. Finding joy outer in this world is the main reason for some people’s fraustration. Nothing can buy you joy, either it is a favorite thing that you desire for or the person you love most or the career you build, unless you feel it within yourself.

A lot of us try to find joy at places or things where it is not. We associate and equate money with happiness. If at all there is joy in money then all of the rich people we have around us would never feel sad. What we have come to see is that even the rich amongst us are the ones that suffer depression, relationship problems, stress, fear and even anxiousness.

Many celebrities and successful people have committed suicide, this goes a long way to show that money or fame does not guarantee happiness. This does not mean that it is a bad thing to be rich and go after money. When you have money, you can afford many things that can make you and those around you very happy.

There is a saying that explains that one can only get true joy when one comes to the realization that only one can make himself/herself happy. This saying and its meaning is always hammered on in at different places but we still refuse to fully understand it and put it into good use. It is very important that we understand that happiness is nothing more than the state of a person’s mind. Joy cannot come from all the physical things we see around us. Only our positive emotions that we get through our good thoughts and actions have the ability to bring true joy in our life. Therefore, it is very important that we work on having only positive thoughts and this can be achieved when we see life in a positive light.

Joy is an internal feeling that helps us to stay fit both mentally and physically. Factors that influence joyfulness are those that contribute to emotional and physical wellbeing. It helps us in lowering our stress and keeping us away from various health issues. It is an important emotion that influences how we live and feel on a daily basis. People have the liberty to choose happiness because we are not bound by any circumstances for life. The reasons of joy may be different for different person. You just need to find out what actually makes you happy. If you want real happiness in life then, you need to understand that only you can make yourself happy.

Every individual finds joy in their own because they know what makes them happy and what doesn’t. It most certainly is found – and not just momentary pleasure, but genuine, long-lasting happiness, which is not something that comes to a person randomly. In fact, most people have to work very hard for a very long time to finally find joy in their life and to create the best possible version of them. Moreover, it is something that any person can build on its own.


Every human being aspires to live a good life. The problem is, we all define the phrase “good living” differently. Some are looking to live an honest life, full of integrity, joy and happiness. Others seek wealth, social status and fame, as they hope these aspects will help them to live the good life. In fact, they directly associate the good life with money and material belongings. Not every person that is living “the dream” or “the good life” is actually living a good life. Take for instance the infamous Colombian drug lord Pablo Escobar. He surely lived well. After all, Escobar is recorded to have been the wealthiest criminal in history. He had private jets, race cars and luxurious mansions. And I’m pretty sure he certainly draws happiness and satisfaction from his life. But was he living a good life? No, because that happiness was the result of so many destroyed lives and homes.

The good life is a term that refers to a (desirable) state that is primarily characterized by a high standard of living or the adherence to ethical and moral laws. Living a good life can mean something different for everyone. However, there is still a general understanding as what this idea entails to most human beings living in the modern world. The good life, in its most simple form, is a series of never ending satisfaction that only grows more powerful as time goes on. In its two different expressions, living the good life can be either expressed through an abundant/luxurious lifestyle full of material belongings or the attempt to live life in accordance with the ethical, moral, legal and religious laws of one’s country or culture.

One of the biggest problems people have in this world is that they are so trapped in the past or the future that they refuse to take control of their life by acknowledging the moment right before their eyes. They are constantly worrying about other things; their body is there but their mind is somewhere else. Be present in each and every moment, it will make you a much happier and inspired human being. As such, the term can both be understood as the quest for wealth, material possessions or luxuries and the quest to create a worthwhile, honest and meaningful existence.

A great number of people assume that the good life can only be attained by adding more to their life. As a consequence, they seek to add material belongings, wealth, social status, fame or something entirely different to their lives. This, however, is the wrong approach. You don’t necessarily have to add something new to your life to enjoy the good life. Quite the contrary is the case. The good life does not consist of continuously chasing evermore. Instead, simplicity and the ability to draw happiness from what you already have can be integral aspects of a good life. This shift in perception can help you to start living the good life in this present moment, without being dependent upon external influences.Good living can be about living your own passion. Your passion is what you love to do every day because it gives you a sense of worth and fulfillment. This can be concentrated into your true life purpose, which is the key to real wealth on this earth. Use your passion in the most productive and universal way possible and you will discover the reasons behind your most important endeavors and goals. There is no such a thing as perfect, there is only perception. The idea of it is based on your own definition. Instead of always searching for perfection, strive for the things that satisfy your individual wants and needs.

The concept of living the good life includes the relationship dimension as well. Without it, it would not fully contribute to your happiness and fulfillment. Even more so, relationships are an integral part of a worthwhile life. Neither wealth nor social status can grant access to true friendship. Therefore, living the good life also consists of spending a significant amounts of your time with those that you love and enjoy being around. The good life is all about growing, developing and becoming stronger together, not alone. Thus, living the good life means different things to different people.  There is, however, a slightly ambiguous, mutual understanding.  “The good life” is the life that you would like to live broken down to its most basic form. It deals with the simple pleasures that make you happy, the compassionate deeds you perform, the personal goals you strive to achieve, the relationships you nurture and the legacy you leave behind.  Sincere personal fulfillment is generally the collective end result.


Sports is an essential part of our life. It teaches us how to stay strong and healthy, and tests our physical abilities.
Usually, when going in for sports, we compete with other people in order to get some entertainment. At the same time, physical exercises bring a bunch of great benefits for participants. All kinds of sports can bring strong physical health, great team abilities, and strong organizational features. It concerns football, basketball, hockey, and other team sports. The physiological and physical advantages obtained within sports activities result in enriched physical stamina and improved reflexes.
Sports can be broadly classified into two categories: Physical sports and mind sports. A brief explanation of each is given below-
• Physical sport- Physical sport is a sport which involves physical exertion and relies on the physical stamina of the participants. Physical sports usually require a play area where the participants compete. The physical sports may further be classified into individual sports like boxing, tennis, badminton where the competition is between two individuals and team sports like basket ball, volley ball and cricket, where two teams compete with each other. A participant’s winning or losing in an individual physical sport depends completely on the stamina and dexterity displayed by him. While in the team sports the winning and losing depends on the overall performance of the team, that is if an individual hasn’t performed well, the team may still win. There are thousands of physical sports played today; few examples are archery, climbing, bungee jumping, kayaking and paragliding etc.
• Mind Sports- In mind sport the competition is based on a particular type of individual ability or skill rather than physical stamina. In a mind sport the competition is between the agility of mind and requires intense thinking rather than any physical exercise. In mind sports a number of factors like concentration, thinking speed, agility of mind and memory play a vital role in the contestants winning or losing. There is no physical exercise required and such games may be played sitting down across the table in a closed room. Some of the World famous mind sports are chess, poker, speed reading, computer programming and cyber security war games etc.
The major benefits that are usually seen by practicing sports are:- 
a)  Physical Fitness- Sports and games play a major role in keeping a person fit and fine. Furthermore, it increases the blood flow in the entire body. So, this helps in keeping the heart in the best condition. Moreover, the immunity of the body increases by playing outdoor sports. Also, it helps in keeping your body fat percentage low. This makes the appearance of the body better and makes a person good-looking.
b)  Increase mental health- Games like chess, card games increase the mental health of a person and develops spontaneity and the response time of a person. This helps in increasing the IQ of a person, make decisions under pressure and increase its presence of mind.
c)  Increase Stamina- Outdoor Sports like Football, cricket, basketball, swimming builds the stamina of a person. As all these sports require a lot of running, the stamina of a person automatically increases. Therefore a person can work for a longer period of time without getting tired.
d)  Builds a sense of teamwork- Some sports need individual participation, while some require teamwork. Thus, sport enlists teamwork in a person which is essential in every fieldwork. A company can only run by working together and not individually. So it is important for a person to know how to work together in a team. Only then he can achieve the desired goal.
e)  Stress-relieving- Sports can bring a change in one’s day to day routine. It relieves you from stress as your body will subject to experience lot of changes. It gives your mind a boost of enthusiasm and happiness. As a result, it will make you feel energetic all the time.
Thus, a sport is that aspect of human life which is of paramount importance. It certainly increases the quality of human life. Sports must be made mandatory in schools. Sports can bring a bunch of benefits for youth, including general health, together with blood circulation and overall physical stamina improvement. Sport develops and improves people’s physical, social, and organizational skills, which are beneficial in personal and professional life and must always be obtained. This is because it is as important as education. Everyone must perform at least one Sport activity on a regular basis.


Moral values, as the name says, implies the significance of the moral qualities in the conduct of the kids, the youth and everyone one in life.
Primarily the moral values are the qualities which one gains from life through the journey of life. They also depict the standards of what is right and what is wrong for us which we learn in the schools and in the workplace and from our surroundings as well. The beliefs which we gain from the family and the society that directs us how we lead our lives is what moral values are all about. Moral values develop character of a person.
It is very truly said that –
“If Wealth is gone, nothing is gone.
If health is gone, something is gone.
But if character is gone, everything is gone”.
Moral values depict our character to the outer world. They are of extreme importance in our lives. In earlier times, people were so determined to follow these values inherited from our ancestors. Such was their determination that once committed they never went backed off from their words. But with modernization and urbanization, we have lost our moral values somewhere.
Children disrespecting their parents are a common sight nowadays. But, we should not blame the children for this. Teachers and Parents should endeavor to put in their best efforts into helping students and their children imbibe very solid moral values. Most children are very observant and they copy and learn habits and behaviors of their elder siblings, parents and teachers. They pay a solid attention to the manner of action and behavior of people around them and are tend to behave and act similarly to what they notice. They would be tending to speak only the truth if they notice that the elders around them are always truthful no matter what the situation may be.
Likewise, it is important as elders not to be engaged in any form of bad behavior as the children assume that they can also do these things as they are not wrong because the elders around them are doing it. We should try to always demonstrate good and solid moral values most especially because of children. The best way to teach children good and solid moral values is through our own actions and habits.
Establishment of good relationships depends upon good moral values. Values like honesty, trust, faithfulness and loyalty are essential in establishment and sustainability of good relationships. It is also important in building the economy. Through determination and hard work, people are able to conduct activities that contribute largely to the economic growth of a society. Also through establishment of good relationships, trade is conducted smoothly and there is teamwork in trade and performance of business transactions.
A person without moral values is considered to possess a bad character and the society will start to judge the person due to this behavior. Inhumane and Unethical Activities like dishonesty, telling lies for your own benefit, hurting others and even worst things, should be avoided. Lack of those values even leads to strained relationships and misunderstanding among members of the society.
Thus, It is very important for us as human beings to bear good and solid moral values like helping others, honesty , righteousness, decency, and even self-discipline. People that have great moral values are very indispensable asset to others and even the society at large. It is evident that moral values are an important consideration in the development of the society. If each one of us practices some moral values in our lives, there would be peace and harmony all around. Moreover, we will have a bright future for our next generations as well.


Finance is the study of money and how it is used. It is the soul and blood of any business and no firm can survive without finance.
It concerns itself with the management of monetary affairs of the firm—how money can be raised on the best terms available and how the procured money can be devoted to the best uses. Hence the nature of finance relates to the process of arrangement and application of funds.
Finance is needed to establish a business, to run it to modernize it to expand or diversify it. It is required for buying a variety of assets, which may be tangible like machinery, furniture, factories, buildings, and offices or intangible such as trademarks, patents, technical expertise etc.
Also, finance is central to run day to day operations of business like buying materials, paying bills, salaries, collecting cash from customers etc needed at every stage in the life of a business entity. Availability of adequate finance is very crucial for survival and growth of a business.
A business organization seek to achieve their objectives by obtaining funds from various sources and then investing them in different types of assets, such as plant, buildings, machin¬ery, vehicles etc. Thus for this, management of the finances through scientific decision – making is necessary.
Finance is often split into three areas: personal finance, corporate finance and public finance. At the same time, finance is about the overall “system” – i.e. the financial markets that allow the flow of money, via investments and other financial instruments, between and within these areas; this “flow” is facilitated by the financial services sector.
A major focus within finance is thus investment management — called money management for individuals, and asset management for institutions — and finance then includes the associated securities trading, investment banking, financial engineering, and risk management.
More abstractly, finance is concerned with the investment and deployment of assets and liabilities over “space and time”: i.e. it is about performing valuation and asset allocation today, based on risk and uncertainty re future outcomes, incorporating the time value of money (determining the present value of these future values, “discounting”, requires a risk-appropriate discount rate).
As an academic field, finance theory is studied and developed within the disciplines of management, (financial) economics, accountancy and applied mathematics. Correspondingly, given its wide application, there are several related professional qualifications, that can lead to the field. As the debate to whether finance is an art or a science is still open, there have been recent efforts to organize a list of unsolved problems in finance.
The nature of finance is discussed below:
1. Cost-Oriented:
Utilization of finance requires payment of fees, rent or any such cost to the provider of finance. Business raises funds and in exchange it has to pay a cost to suppliers of the funds. If the finance is arranged by issuing shares the firm pays dividend in return or capital payment in the form of bonus shares.
2. Value Based:
Economic application of finance helps to earn profit which ultimately creates value for the firm. Finance administers economic activities, enhances efficiency of the business operation, and thus ensures creation of surplus. So it deals with the broad spectrum of business activities that are directed to increase the value of the firm. How the fund can be arranged with least cost consideration and how that can be applied with best uses determines the extent of value generated by a firm. Hence finance is value-oriented.
3. Interrelated:
It has a deep impact on the organization, society as well as the economy. The financing decision of a firm creates impact on investors, employees, debtors, creditors, government and all the members of an economy. Business activities are not mutually exclusive and so their dependence on each other is measured in terms of finance. Decisions relating to any activity influence others and in this way finance builds an interrelationship among business, society and economy.
4. Pervasive:
Finance is all-pervasive. It is necessary for all types of organizations whether profit seeking or non-profit seeking. For profit seeking firm’s value maximization is the main goal while for non-profit seeking firms cost minimization and survival get prime importance. Both these goals are evaluated in financial terms. Firms, whether profit seeking or non-profit seeking, require financial support, because financial viability is the central theme of every firm.


Creativity is the ability of a person or group to make something new and useful or valuable, or the process of making something new and useful or valuable.
It happens in all areas of life – science, art, literature and music. As a personal ability it is very difficult to measure. The reason is that we don’t understand the mental processes that help some people be more creative than others. Judging what is creative is also controversial. Some people say only things which are historically new are creative, while other people say that if it is new for the creator and the people around them, then it is also creativity.
Thus, creativity is a constructive process which results in the production of essentially a new product. Creativity is seeing or expressing new relationships. Creativity is not limited to the objects of everyday use, but it is an instrument for increasing knowledge. Creativity is possible in all areas of life like thinking, working, playing or social interaction.
Some think creativity is an important thing that makes humans different from apes. Others recognize that even apes, other primates, other mammals and some birds adapt to survive by being creative (for example – primates using tools). Liane Gabora believes that all cultures come from creativity, not imitation.
Therefore, these people say, human science should focus on it or pay special attention to it :- 
(a) Ethics for example would focus on finding creative solutions to ethical dilemmas. 
(b) Politics would focus on the political virtues that need some creativity. Imitation would not be the focus of education. 
(c) Linguistics might be more interested in how new words are created by culture, rather than in how existing ones are used in grammar.
Creativity begins with a foundation of knowledge, learning a discipline, and mastering a way of thinking. You can learn to be creative by experimenting, exploring, questioning assumptions, using imagination and synthesizing information. 
Learning to be creative is akin to learning a sport. It requires practice to develop the right muscles and a supportive environment in which to flourish. Though we cannot alter genetic factors, we can alter behavior through manipulation of the environment in which the individual lives. It is found that the culture, family atmosphere and education play significant roles in the development of creative talent. “Creativity flourishes when creative behavior is encouraged.
It is also observed that by proper training creative thinking can be improved. Recognition of the creativeness of the child by the family members and teachers and encouraging the child to develop creative thinking yields good results as found by studies.
Studies by Clayton M. Christensen and his researchers uncovered The Innovators DNA: Your ability to generate innovative ideas is not merely a function of the mind, but also a function of five key behaviors that optimize your brain for discovery:
• Associating: drawing connections between questions, problems, or ideas from unrelated fields
• Questioning: posing queries that challenge common wisdom
• Observing: scrutinizing the behavior of customers, suppliers, and competitors to identify new ways of doing things
• Networking: meeting people with different ideas and perspectives
• Experimenting: constructing interactive experiences and provoking unorthodox responses to see what insights emerge
Creativity is not an easy process; it requires efforts and hard work. If the person lacks motivation, he may give up easily without sufficient efforts. And the lack of results can be blamed on lack of creativity. But if a person is truly motivated, and works towards his problems a creative solution can always be attained.
We must learn that every person has a creative side or aspect of their personality. It only requires exploration and application. We must not forget that creativity is necessary and in actual it is a hard work because the talent only is not enough. So, tremendous amount of commitment and passion is necessary to be creative.


One of the first things you probably do every morning is look out the window to see what the weather is like.
Looking outside and listening to the day’s forecast helps you decide what clothes you will wear and maybe even what you will do throughout the day. If you don’t have school and the weather looks sunny, you might visit the zoo or go on a picnic. A rainy day might make you think about visiting a museum or staying home to read.
Thus, Weather is the day-to-day state of atmosphere and pertains to short term changes in conditions of heat, moisture and air movement. Weather results from processes that attempt to equalize the differences in the distribution of net radiant energy from sun. Areas located closer to the Earth’s equator receive more energy than areas that are closer to the Earth’s poles. In other words, the instantaneous state of atmosphere can be called as weather. It is usually expressed as fine, fair, foggy, cloudy, rainy, sunny or windy weather.
It refers to the sum total of the atmos¬pheric conditions in terms of temperature, pressure, wind, moisture, cloudiness, precipitation and visibility of a particular place at any given time. In fact, it denotes short-term variations of atmospheric condi¬tions and it is highly variable. It contrives phenomena in the atmosphere of our planet. Different surfaces such as forests, oceans, streams, mountains, and ice sheets also influence weather conditions. At different times of the year, sunlight falls on the Earth’s surface at different angles. So, at one period of time, one hemisphere receives more direct sunlight than another. This effect is known as the effect of the sun’s angle on climate, causes seasons.
Weather is an important factor to determine the success or failure of agriculture. All the agricultural operations from sowing to harvest of crops depend on the mercy of weather. It also plays a major role in the productivity of a crop in any region as the excess or shortage of elements of weather exerts a negative influence on crop growth, development and final yield.
There are certain factors that can lead to the variation in the weather such as geographic surface features such as large bodies of water and mountain ranges modify the wind characteristics and hence the meteorological parameters :- 
(a) A mountain range in the path of prevailing wind creates moist conditions on the windward side and dry conditions on the leeward side. Air cools adiabatically to the dew point as it rises up the mountains. The air that is forced upward by the mountain range loses its moisture and becomes a dry mass when it goes over the top. This is called the aerographic effect (relief effect), which is different from the usual rainfall without mountains. This is how topography influences weather through variation in temperature and wind.
(b) Water is normally warmer than the surrounding land. When wind blows over a large body of water, it picks up moisture, thus creating a more moderate leeward condition. The leeward side of the body of water is subjected to less temperature fluctuations (relatively stable weather) compared to windward side. Windward side is suitable for drought tolerant crops and leeward side to relatively drought sensitive crops. North facing and south facing slopes may have different weather and thus different natural vegetation. Therefore, these sites have different crops grown in the respective areas and so on.
Similarly, there are six main components, or parts, of weather. They are temperature, atmospheric pressure, wind, humidity, precipitation, and cloudiness. Together, these components describe the weather at any given time. These changing components, along with the knowledge of atmospheric processes, help meteorologists—scientists who study weather—forecast what the weather will be in the near future.


The earth is spherical. As such, it is represented by three dimensional model called globe.
Even though, globe is very useful to maintain the true shape, area, direction, distances and locations, it cannot be made large enough to include all the details of surface features like— continents, oceans, mountains, deserts, roads, railways etc. Therefore, a two dimensional flat surface is constructed to represent the whole part of the earth and its surface features which is called Map.
A map is a representation or a drawing of the earth’s surface, or a part of it, on a flat surface, according to a scale.  It could be hand drawn or printed. It helps us identify the places and locations within an area helping us to navigate from one place to another. A map is different from an aerial photograph because it includes interpretation.
Many maps are called “charts” such as star charts and nautical charts. Before the late 20th century almost all maps were on paper. Now they are more often seen on a computer screen. The word “map” can also be used to talk about a chart or drawing that shows relationships between ideas, people, events, or anything else you can think about.
The way we now use maps is changing. The way we think of the city is also changing. The way we think of, interact with and navigate the streets, alleys, boulevards, roads, parks, lanes, hills, cracks and gutters is going through a seismic shift, not because the landscape has changed, but because of little black rectangles in our pockets.
Having a map in your pocket at all is relatively recent development. “In the medieval period right the way through to the 19th century, people could live perfectly happily in their locality without ever having knowledge of or care for the wider world,” explains Tom Harper, curator of antiquarian mapping at the British Library. As maps became cheaper to produce they became important public tools, able to take the mess of new urban metropolises and make them comprehensible. Pocket maps were designed to fit in gentlemen’s coat pockets, and this cheaper production signaled a revolution in mapping. As digital technology becomes more readily available the shifts are just as enormous.
Maps have three components mainly: distance, direction, and symbol along with few more features. We measure distance in terms of scale. A scale is a ratio between the actual distance on the ground and the distance shown on the map.
Normally the essential features of a map include:
• Title— it tells about the area and purpose
• Scale— it is used to measure large areas like continents or countries on a paper, we use a small scale map.
• Map projection—the surface created with the help of some techniques to construct network of parallels and meridian and to show a small area like a village to town, we use a large scale map.
• Key—It tells about various signs used in the maps
• Direction— Directions are cardinal points like North, South, East and West. And symbols are certain letters, shades, colors, pictures and lines, which gives us information about a limited place. Various other things like sketches and plans are used to draw an area of a large scale.
• Conventional symbols—They are used to show various features
Maps are of several types.  They are mainly classified into:
• Physical or Relief Maps: These show natural features of the earth.
• Political Maps: These maps show the cities, town and villages, countries and states of the world with their boundaries.
• Thematic Maps: These maps focus on specific information like the map of a rainfall, roads, and tourist places.
Thus, Maps give a broad understanding of location and features of an area. The reader may gain an understanding of the type of landscape, the location of urban places, and the location of major transportation routes all at once with the help of maps.


Child abuse refers to any kind of emotional, sexual, or physical mistreatment or neglect by an adult who is entitled to the role of responsibility towards someone who is under 18 years of age.
It refers to any kind of action or failure to act to those things that results in causing harm to a child. The adult may be a parent or any family member or a caregiver, including sports coaches, teachers, and so on. Child abuse isn’t just about black eye instead it is a serious emotional harm that causes severe impact on the brain and health of the victim child.
While physical abuse is shocking due to the marks it leaves, not all signs of child abuse are as obvious. Ignoring children’s needs, putting them in unsupervised, dangerous situations, exposing them to sexual situations, or making them feel worthless or stupid are also forms of child abuse and neglect—and they can leave deep, lasting scars on kids. So, depending upon this, child abuse is categorized into four types i.e.
Physical Abuse, Sexual Abuse, Emotional Abuse and Neglect. Physical Abuse is subject to any use of physical force against child which is not the result of any accident such as hitting, beating, choking, punching, burning etc. Sexual Abuse means making a child involve in some sexual acts by manipulation, undue influence or force. It can also involve spying or watching on a child.
A pattern of denying a child love, approval and security, or mistreating a child such as bullying, yelling, isolating, criticizing, terrorizing, ignoring and shaming are all types of emotional abuse and failing to provide a child with the things they need to grow, such as shelter, food, hygiene, supervision, medical attention, education or safety is neglect.
Signs of child abuse may include unexplained black eyes, broken bones, bruises, bites, or burns or appearing to be frightened of a specific individual, being watchful as if expecting something unpleasant to happen or flinching when touched or wearing inappropriate clothing, for example, long sleeves in summer or to cover up injuries, appearing withdrawn, anxious, or afraid or showing extremes in behavior.
For example, compliance, passivity, or aggressiveness or lack of attachment to parent or caregiver or age-inappropriate behavior, for example, sucking a thumb or having nightmares or wetting the bed or changes in mood or appetite or pregnancy or having a sexually transmitted disease (STD), especially before the age of 14 years or have medical or dental care needs that are not being met or have unwashed clothes, skin, or hair or be using drugs or alcohol or be missing food or money at unusual times, for example, for lunch or bus fare or wear the same clothes all the time or be consistently unsuitably dressed for the time of year.
Factors that one should keep in mind while dealing with abused child are: – 
Avoid denial and remain calm – A common reaction to news as unpleasant and shocking as child abuse is denial. However, if you display denial to a child, or show shock or disgust at what they are saying, the child may be afraid to continue and will shut down.
As hard as it may be, remain as calm and reassuring as you can. Don’t interrogate – Let the child explain to you in their own words what happened, but don’t interrogate the child or ask leading questions. This may confuse and fluster the child and make it harder for them to continue their story.
Reassure the child that they did nothing wrong – It takes a lot for a child to come forward about abuse. Reassure them that you take what they said seriously, and that it is not their fault. Safety comes first – If you feel that your safety or the safety of the child would be threatened if you tried to intervene, leave it to the professionals. You may be able to provide more support later.
Counseling – It is necessary to understand that an abused child needs a counseling to overcome the trauma or shock. If it is not done at the right time then the seed of fear or that abuse may grow huge and may result even in committing a suicide or some criminal activity.


If there is a rebellion against the authority (for example the internationally recognized government of the country) and those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents, the rebellion is an insurgency.
And Insecurity is a feeling of uncertainty, a lack of confidence or anxiety about you or the state of being open to danger or threat; lack of protection.
Year-in, year-out, decades after decades and centuries upon centuries, there has continued to be recurrent calls for eradication of illiteracy globally. The experience over the years has, however, shown that no target fixed for eradication of illiteracy has ever been met. There have always been renewed calls for eradication of illiteracy at the expiration of countless number of failed decades set as targets for ‘Education for All’ without meeting the target. Parts of the major causes of unrealized and unfulfilled dreams of education for all have been challenges posed by insurgency and insecurity bedeviling the entire world.
The outbreak of insurgencies culminating in high level of insecurity has hampered children’s and adults’ access to all forms of education be it formal, non-formal, or adult education. Due to insurgencies, school have been physically touched, destroyed, burnt and broken down. The systems of education in many countries globally have been adversely affected. Communities scattered and destabilized, people displaced and killed.
Terrorism is another dimension of prevalence of insecurity and insurgency. Achumba et al. (2013) defined terrorism as the premeditated, threat or use of violence by an individual or group to cause fear, destruction or death, especially against unarmed targets, property or infrastructure in a state, intended to compel those in authority to respond to the demands and expectations of the individual or group behind such violent acts.
Muzan (2014) also said terrorism is any act which is intended to cause death or serious bodily harm to civilians or noncombatants (in a conflict) with the purpose of intimidating a population or compelling a government or an international organization to do or abstain from doing any act. Examples are Boko Haram in Nigeria, Hamas in Palestine, Islamic State in Iraq and the Syria (ISIS), El-Shabab in Somalia etc. All of these insurgencies including other armed groups directly carry attacks on education.
The consequences of any act of violence are often despicable and far-reaching. The analysis of the impacts of the insurgency on human security will be based on the broader perspective of human security with particular focus on food and nutrition, health, shelter, education and protection which are the primary needs of every individual.
In literature, many reasons have been given for the attacks suffered by education by insurgents. Since their grievances are against the governments and their policies, the insurgents see attacking schools as attacking one of the institutions that form parts of what gives the governments strength and relevance to the peoples they govern. The insurgents also are aware that education is what touches all the citizens, so attacking it makes all citizens to feel impact of their campaigns
It is often said that prevention is better than cure. However the cure becomes imperative at the instance of occurrence. Now that insurgency and insecurity have occurred, proactive measures need to be made. The first thing is not rebuilding the damaged school buildings but repairing and rebuilding the damaged security. It is only when adequate security is put in place as earlier pointed out in this article that every other acts of reconstruction of physical facilities can be meaningful.
Thus, according to Coursen-Neff, et al. (2010), putting an end to attacks on schools, teachers, and students requires action at national and international levels on three fronts: 
(i) Stronger monitoring systems; 
(ii) Targeted preventive measures, and more decisive and timely response when incidents do occur.
(iii) Effective justice mechanisms that hold violators of domestic and international law accountable.
a) Government should create a rehabilitation centre and career opportunities for dismissed Soldiers and Police, so that they will not become terrorists after their dismissal.
b) Government should sponsor the education or career of all the Soldiers that discharged voluntarily without reaching pension age and was paid off, Government should also cater for all their basic needs because it is better for Government to spend some of the nation’s money on building the people that served the nation faithfully and discharged voluntarily than wasting the money on things that will not contribute positively to the well being of the nation. We know that military job is a voluntary job and any skill or knowledge that anybody gain from military can still be used to develop the nation outside the military. If Government did not value this kind of people, terrorists can entice them with money and use them for terrorism most especially if they lack money or good living.
c) There must be equal right for everybody and individual must be able to afford all the necessary things easily at anytime without difficulty unless if the person is lazy.
d) Government should avoid anything that will frustrate the effort of upright people because if there is no frustration there will be no misbehaviour.


“Marriages are made in Heaven” We all have heard these lines at some or the other point of our life.
I had also heard this. But, with the flow of time and experiences this perspective is getting changed. Every marriage does not culminate in being an ever-lasting, heavenly, beautiful affair. Sometimes the strands of the marital relationship just break off for reasons known and at times, unknown.
The family is an intimate domestic group of people related to one another by bonds of blood, sexual mating, or legal ties. It has been a very resilient social unit that has survived and adapted through time. The list is endless and the pain associated with it too.
One of the most overlooked reasons why marriages fail is how people define compromise. While compromise is considered to be the cornerstone of any relationship, most people assume that means that some of the time, each partner gets what they want. Actually, the true definition of compromise in the context of marriage is that neither party gets what they really want. Marriage is tough. You have to be constantly ready to give something up, even after it seems like you’ve already given up everything. Without accepting this definition of compromise, people move towards a break-up.
Extra-marital affairs are also responsible for the breakdown of most marriages that end in divorce. This is one of the most common causes of divorce. The reasons why people cheat aren’t as cut and dry as our anger may lead us to believe. Infidelity often begins as a seemingly innocent friendship, says Ruth Houston. “It starts as an emotional affair which later becomes a physical affair”. Infidelity is the number one reason for divorce.
Marrying for the wrong reasons, like for the money or settling to not be alone, leads to an unstable foundation. At some point, the couple will realize they aren’t compatible or one might start to love themselves more and want to be with someone who fulfills their needs as they start to value themselves.
A main issue in marriages is incompatibility in conflict resolution. While some people grow up in families where shouting is the way to solve a conflict, others grow up in households where they ignore the matter. If a couple comes from two different sides of this, it’ll be difficult to resolve conflicts agreeably and create difficulties in communication.
Another reason is that couples often do not talk about money, and many people bring undisclosed debt with them into a marriage and hide their spending afterwards. Financial pressures and very different or even opposing financial styles — spending versus saving, risk versus reward — can sabotage a marriage even more effectively than sexual issues or even fundamental differences such as whether to have children or not.
Couples often invest all of their time into their careers while neglecting their relationship with their partner. When this happens, resentment begins to build within one or both partners. Most couples don’t have the tools needed to work through these resentments, which often lead to feeling disconnected and detached. This disconnection due to not keeping the relationship a priority quickly leads to marriage failure.
For many, an addiction is something that cannot be forgiven, particularly if in the beginning of the relationship the addiction was not known or did not exist. Some addiction deal breakers were drug and alcohol problems, gambling or pornography. In addition to the first two concerns, addictions create trust issues. Many people felt they would not be able to count on their significant other to be consistent in his/her behavior and to put the relationship before anything else.
Eventually, this would wear strongly on the foundation of one’s marriage.
The other reason that is responsible for the breakdown of a home is when people enter into a marriage, they have the expectation that their loved one is the person they know best, someone who will always have their back. When things happen to shake that belief, it rocks the foundation of the relationship. Being able to trust, count on and predict one’s spouse is paramount to a healthy, happy relationship.
Many people stated that if their spouse hit them, or physically or sexually abused their children, the relationship would be over. While there are many people who opt to stay in physically abusive relationships and some spouses who look the other way if their children are abused by their spouse, many people would not allow themselves or their children to be abused in that way especially by someone who promised to love them. This, again, can be reason for a breakdown of a home.
The fact that women spend most of their time either at work or doing household chores can lead to emotional stress in the family. The twentieth century family is mostly nucleus and thus children at times feel isolated and lacking the support of their extended kinds: grandparents, aunts, cousins etc. They become introvert and their stress level rise to such an extent that when ‘explosion’ occurs, it can have dramatic results. This may lead to violence, psychological damage, mental illness, drug intake, crime etc.
The breakdown of children may lead to quarrel between parents. In the long run, marriages may fail and consequently lead to breakdown of a home. Incidence that may appear trivial can blow out of proportions and cause drastic consequence within the family.
Yet another reason that we get to see is Family dynamics that play a role in fueling family alienation.
When one sibling is the clear parental favorite, it can cause resentment that festers over years. When one sibling crosses the line and the other sibling can’t tolerate the offense, the relationship sunders. And that line can be crossed in a variety of ways, ranging from “especially cruel remarks, being nasty to a sibling’s spouse or children, going off psychiatric medication or bringing unsavory people into a sibling’s home.
Thus, establishing consistent consequences for bad behavior or negativity and detachment among family members at home does not indicate a lack of love or care, even though that is often the accusation from the person receiving the consequence but setting clear parameters and making the two people in conflict to sit and solve their matter helps to restore the broken family. Giving priority to a single thought to relationship and the person is important would work. So, do not let your closed ones go away instead win them and be with them.


These two terms involve the people and the process that takes over a particular state. Both of these terms refer to the system that is in control of the country or state.
The word “politics” represents the diverse world of relationships, activities, behavior, orientation, views and communication links regarding government and governance. The main subject of the politics is the social group with its political organizations, movements, and leaders.
The purpose of the politics is to guide public development in a positive direction by identifying common objectives and ways of achieving them. Government is a social science term which refers to this certain group of people that takes over a particular nation. The term “government” refers to the group of people running the country whereas politics would refer to the process of running the country.
Politics can also be found in the workplace since there would be executive members of a company. This would come in groups such as the board of directors and board of trustees.
The government’s affairs are rarely interfered with by the influence of the common people. Whereas, politics would involve more people apart from the political groups.
There has been considerable disagreement among sociologists about the nature of power, politics, and the role of the state and government in society. This is not surprising as any discussion of power and politics is bound to be political itself, that is to say divisive or “politicized.” It is arguably the case that we are better positioned today, after a period of prolonged political rule, to see the nature of power and the state more clearly than during periods of peace.
It is during moments when the regular frameworks of political practice and behavior are disrupted—through revolution, suspension of the law, the failure of states, war, or counter-insurgency–that the underlying basis of the relationship between the social and the political, or society and the government can be revealed and rethought.
When we hear the term politics, we usually think of the government, politicians and political parties. For a country to have an organized government and work as per specific guidelines, we require a certain organization. This is where politics comes in, as it essentially forms the government.
Every country, group and organization use politics to instrument various ways to organize their events, prospects and more.
Politics does not limit to those in power in the government. It is also about the ones who are in the run to achieve the same power. The candidates of the opposition party question the party on power during political debates. They intend to inform people and make them aware of their agenda and what the present government is doing. All this is done with the help of politics only.
In fact, the whole political system is corrupt because the ministers in power exercise their authority to get away with all their crimes. They bribe everyone into working for their selfish motives making the whole system corrupt. Before coming into power, the government makes numerous promises to the public. They influence and manipulate them into thinking all their promises will be fulfilled. However, as soon as they gain power, they turn their back on the public. They work for their selfish motives and keep fooling people in every election. Out of all this, only the common suffers at the hands of lying and corrupt politicians.
Furthermore, the majority of politicians are corrupt. They abuse their power to advance their personal interests rather than that of the country. We see the news flooded with articles like ministers and their families involving in scams and illegal practices. The power they have makes them feel invincible which is why they get away with any crime.
Thus, we need godly educated ministers seriously in the government. They are the ones who can make the country progress as they will handle things better than the evil illiterate and evil educated ones.


“Handwork” means “any work that is done by hands and not by machines or any other thing”. 
The hands are unique and beautiful part of the human being, and they bring us important and far reaching experiences. Thus, hands need to be skillful, sensitive and strong so that they can accomplish many wonderful deeds. We need to learn that how blind person sees the whole world through his hands, how a handshake tells about another person. Unfortunately, most of the people are unaware of the knowledge that can be gained when the hands are used in useful and sensitive ways.
The handwork lays a good foundation in nurturing our talents. Being active with our hands, can often help our mind to coordinate, concentrate and self correct. This is because when we make use of our hands to do something, we often tend to silent our mind leading to a natural way of releasing stress and helping ourselves with the emotional processes. Hand work can be an intensively effective relaxation tool by directing our mind tourism meet with the rhythm of our hands.
Some kind of work with one’s hands would be beneficial on every course, at every level of education and training, whether or not what is related to the rest of the course. This applies even to universities, perhaps especially to universities where it is absolutely essential, though seldom acknowledged, that students need to balance their predominantly left brain work with some right brain activity.
Of course, there are some subjects that do not seem to be suitable for practical activities. However, such subjects can still create some educational experiences that may help students to learn to judge their own progress. For example, students who submit essays are frequently mystified about what is expected of them. We can teach them to judge the value of the essay they produce. For this reshuffle the notebooks of all the students and then ask each of them to allocate marks to the essay in front of them, without consulting anybody. Then ask each student to tell the reason behind the number of marks he allotted to the essay before him. This exercise makes students aware of relative importance of different ideas of which they might have not even thought of, but heard about from other students.
Similarly, in subjects like mathematics or accounting, where there are calculations to be practiced, help students to learn to judge for themselves whether they can do the work or not without the help of answers and solutions. With this they can master the skill of solving a question in a quick manner in their mind itself. In fact, when the brain is not able to remember something quickly and for a long period, writing that down helps the brain to learn and remember seventy percent of the content written without even making any special effort to learn it.
Handwork, thus, works as a photograph that a brain captures and brain tends to remember photogenic things more than something that is in writing. Today, it has even become clear that the mind develops from creativity and knowledge and the skill develops with the practice. The potential for creativity expands as a child develops his ability to observe, as he learns effective and efficient ways to use tools, as he refines his hands, as he has an opportunity to witness and experience examples of great art in all the various media, and as he gains a greater understanding of the elements of design.
Thus, we should make our children well trained in handwork. The time for perfecting movement is in the first six years of life. And so, whatever we do with the children, whether it is working with the sensorial and practical life materials, handling a book, or using a pencil, we always would show a child the most efficient and effective way to use a tool. And we would give him simple things to do until his hands were more skilled at using any particular tool.


Education is an effort of the senior people to transfer their knowledge to the younger members of society. It is thus an institution, which plays a vital role in integrating an individual with his society and in maintaining the perpetuation of culture. Emile Durkheim defines education as “the influence exercised by the adult generation upon those who are not yet ready for adult life”.
Schools exist for education, and that education is best at educates best, rather than that which has the largest number of students or the biggest buildings. Education is not about learning something but it is about becoming something different from what you were before. It is not the knowledge that develops the man but thinking. For a man to be educated he must learn to think. To cram facts into the memory is not education. Though, facts are useful as material for an education but the education is in the man, while the facts are. The ability of a man to learn to think clearly, accurately, easily, rapidly and strongly is said to be the education of the man.
In such competitive world, it is a must for all to have good education. The importance of higher education has become essential in getting good job and status in life. Proper education creates lots of ways to go ahead in the future. It makes us strong mentally, socially and intellectually by increasing our knowledge level and technical skills. Education plays a key role in creating patriotic, disciplined and productive manpower.
Education is fundamental to human progress. It plays a prominent role all – around development of individual as well as society. A large number of books have already been written on the importance of education. It means the fostering of personality through the unhampered development of innate qualities of human being. It aims at integrated development of personality.
Education is the most significant tool in eliminating poverty and unemployment. It enhances the commercial scenario and benefits the country overall. So, the higher the level of education in a country, the better the chances of development are. In addition, this education also benefits an individual in various ways. It helps a person take a better and informed decision with the use of their knowledge. This increases the success rate of a person in life. 
Subsequently, education is also responsible for providing with an enhanced lifestyle. It gives you career opportunities that can increase your quality of life. Similarly, education also helps in making a person independent. When one is educated enough, they won’t have to depend on anyone else for their livelihood. They will be self-sufficient to earn for themselves and lead a good life.
Above all, education also enhances the self-confidence of a person and makes them certain of things in life. When we talk from the countries viewpoint, even then education plays a significant role. Educated people vote for the better candidate of the country. This ensures the development and growth of a nation.
In ancient times, the education was confined to the ‘twice-born’ castes and the upper classes. The organizational structure was inscriptive and hereditary. The lower castes, particularly the scheduled castes, were denied education. But, in modern times, education is exoteric, open and liberal. The world-view is scientific-rational; the theme consists of freedom, equality, humanism and denial of faith in dogma and superstitions. The course contents are rationalistic and in tune with the needs of the present day society. The modern education lays emphasis on the subjects like freedom, nationality, law, human rights, democracy and scientific world view.
The other parts of education are the co-curricular and extra-curricular activities, which are often organized for total personality development of a student. Education is definitely important in one`s life. A gift of knowledge can bring us to the top of our dreams. It leads us to the right path and gives us a chance to have a wonderful life. Education makes people capable of doing new interesting things that can go a long way to improving human living conditions and standards.
Our whole life is the process of learning and gaining new useful knowledge. We should always remember that getting a good education is imperative in today`s society as it is a foundation of our successful future. Education is really worth investment only if you believe and work hard you can achieve anything.


Career is an important aspect of any person’s life. It determines the kind of lifestyle one will lead and his/her position in the society. While everyone dreams of a good lifestyle but not everyone is able to build a strong career that can ensure the same.
Career is usually associated with the professional aspect of a person’s life. However, some even relate it to an individual’s life and learning in addition to his work. Be it a boy or a girl, these days career is given a lot of importance in a person’s life. From the beginning itself, we are asked to concentrate on our studies and score well in the exams. The ultimate motif of doing this is to build a strong base and fetch good grades that would help you build a lucrative career.
The career path you choose has a major impact on various other aspects of your life. It determines your status in the society, your lifestyle, your social circle and even your relations with your relatives. It is thus important to choose your career wisely.
How to Choose your Career?
Choosing a career is a big decision and the irony is that we are not prepared to take such a big decision at the time we require taking it. We are still in our school when we have to choose between the science, commercial and Art stream that mainly influences the career path we take up later. While earlier, it was parents, teachers and elder siblings who largely influenced our career choice, children these days have become more aware with the advancement in the internet.
The selection of a career or profession is one of the most important things of life. But it is equally difficult. The lack of guiding services, proper counseling and ever increasing unemployment has further complicated the matter.
There is cut-throat competition. Therefore, most of the young men and women in search of suitable jobs are a confused, indecisive and frustrated lot. It has generated a deep sense of frustration and indiscipline among the young people. A good choice may lead to happy, prosperous and satisfying career and life. On the other hand, a wrong selection may result in failure, disappointment and sadness in life. 
You must consider a number of factors before deciding on your career. Each factor plays a significant role in your choice. Firstly, always assess yourself thoroughly. You must understand your area of interest to choose a career. For instance, someone who dances well can surely become a doctor, but his interest will always be in dance. Thus, ensure that you have the caliber to perform well in the field you choose. This will come from your area of interest itself.
After that, you look for the opportunities available as per your area of interest. Now that you are aware of what you like and dislike, you can easily look for occupations matching your passion. Make a list of the occupations you can get into following your interests. Furthermore, shorten the list you have prepared. You must do so as per what suits you best. Consult with your seniors and parents to make informed decisions.
Most importantly, acquire the skills for the career option you are interested in. Ensure you earn the qualifications and degrees for it. Try taking training programs to enhance your skills. This will give you an upper hand in knowing whether you are correct in choosing the specific career plan. Furthermore, create an impressive resume which can help you get the right opportunities.
Thus, you must choose your career cautiously as various aspects of your life are attached to it. Take your time, explore all the options, seek advice from those who are experienced and then take a decision. Once you choose a career, work hard so that you are able to get into the field of your choice.

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